Huge volcanoes, deep valleys, and craters that may or may not contain running water are just some of the striking differences on Mars. Once we start the first Red Planet settlements, it will be an incredible place for future Travellers to explore. For safety and practical considerations, the landing locations for these next missions will probably need to be flat plains; nevertheless, they might be able to land a few days' drive from some more intriguing geology. Here are some potential travel destinations for Martians in the future.
1. Olympus mons
The most violent volcano in the solar system is Olympus Mons. According to NASA, it is around the same area as the state of Arizona and is situated in the Tharsis volcanic zone. It is approximately three times as tall as Earth's Mount Everest, which is roughly 5.5 miles (8.9 km) high. Its height is 16 miles (25 km).
A massive shield volcano called Olympus Mons was created when lava slowly slid down the mountain's sides. Given that its average slope is only 5%, the mountain should be simple for adventurers to climb in the future. A stunning depression about 53 miles (85 km) wide was created at its peak by magma chambers that collapsed after losing lava (possibly during an eruption).
2 .Tharsis volcanoes
It's worthwhile to stay and have a look at some of the other volcanoes in the Tharsis region while you're trekking around Olympus Mons. According to NASA, a region around 2500 miles (4000 km) broad on Tharsis is home to 12 enormous volcanoes. These volcanoes, like Olympus Mons, frequently exceed those on Earth in size. This is probably because Mars has a lesser gravitational pull than Earth, which enables the volcanoes to increase in height. It's possible that these volcanoes have erupted for up to two billion years, or half of Mars' existence.
3 .Valles Marineris
The biggest canyon and the biggest volcano in the solar system are both found on Mars. According to NASA, Valles Marineris is around 1850 miles (3000 km) long. That is almost four times as long as the Grand Canyon, which is around 500 miles long (800 km).
There are various ideas regarding how Valles Marineris formed, but researchers are unsure of the cause. Many experts argue that the Tharsis region's formation aided in the development of the Valles Marineris. The crust was forced higher by the lava flowing through the volcanic area, which caused cracks in other places. These cracks developed into Valles Marineris throughout time.
4 . The North and South Poles
The north pole was closely examined by the Phoenix lander in 2008, whereas our views of the south pole come from orbiters. Mars has two polar areas at its poles, each of which has a somewhat distinct composition. According to NASA, it gets so cold close to the north and south poles during the winter that carbon dioxide condenses out of the sky and forms ice on the ground.
In the summer, when the carbon dioxide sublimates back into the atmosphere, the process is reversed. In the northern hemisphere, the carbon dioxide totally vanishes, leaving a water ice cover behind. There is still some carbon dioxide ice in the southern atmosphere, though. The Martian climate is greatly impacted by all of this ice movement, which results in winds and other consequences.
5 .Gale Crater and Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons)
The Phoenix lander conducted a close examination of the north pole (seen in the image) in 2008, whilst orbiters provide us views of the south pole. At the poles of Mars, there are two polar regions, each of which has a somewhat different composition. NASA claims that during the winter, temperatures near the north and south poles are so low that carbon dioxide condenses out of the sky and turns to ice on the ground.
The process is reversible in the summer when carbon dioxide sublimates back into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide completely disappears in the northern hemisphere, leaving a water ice layer in its place. But some carbon dioxide ice is still present in the southern atmosphere.
6. 'Ghost Dunes' in Noctis Labyrinthus and Hellas basin
Since the water vaporised as the atmosphere of Mars grew thinner, the planet is now mostly sculpted by the wind. However, there is abundant evidence of previous flooding, such as areas of "ghost dunes" in the Hellas basin and Noctis Labyrinthus. According to researchers, these areas formerly included dunes that were tens of metres tall. The dunes were later submerged by lava or water, which retained their bottoms while eroding away their tops.
Old dunes like this provide climatologists with some clues about the Red Planet's past climate by demonstrating how the winds used to blow there.
Source : https://www.space.com/41254-touring-mars-red-planet-road-trip.html
Edited By : Bidyut B. Gogoi (Linkedin)